The pun, “on the edge” is used in multiple contexts to summarize the events of this chapter. The pun could be used in a literal way, for example the men could be literally scaling the edge of a mountain. The mental meaning could mean they are on the edge of danger, or have to overcome their own mental fears.
Foreshadowing: In the the text, Touching the Void, Foreshadowing is used in many different ways to create an image of upcoming potential events in the book. It is often used as a warning and to create tension in the readers mind of a dangerous or harmful event that is upcoming in the text. An example of foreshadowing in chapter 4, “On the Edge” is on page 51 when Joe says, “it will be dark in an hour, to make things more difficult the storm had boiled over us again”. This quote conveys a sense of nervousness to the reader, and creates a feeling that something is about to happen in the text and could be foreshadowing a disaster.